By Randall Marin and Rob van den Tillaart
While browsing through the Real Innovation forum Rob van den Tillaart came across a question asked by Randall Marin:
"Does anyone know if an article about the 40 principles applied to electrical power, electrical power distribution or pure electrical engineering has been written? Thanks."
The short question resulted in multiple, lengthier answers and the dialogue accumulated led to this article. The authors do not have a job in the electrical grid industry; however, they have enough common knowledge, watched enough movies, read enough newspapers and magazines to have a mental image of how the electrical grid works and especially how it can fail. Furthermore, the authors use electric appliances on a daily basis.
Using their memory and fantasy they imagined real problems of the grid and showed how the 40 inventive principles could be applied to solve these problems. Sometimes the authors worked the other way around, using a principle to generate ideas and then looked for a problem. For example, while formulating a problem for principle "X" the solutions by means of principle "Y" suddenly appeared; in the end they worked both ways.
The authors applied principle 16 in their problem solving. If a good example for a principle could not be found the authors happily settled for less and sometimes they did not find an example at all (as a result the example is left open to challenge the reader).
The applications of the 40 inventive principles that are mentioned in this article are imagined by the authors unless stated otherwise. Other people, however, might have formulated similar or identical solutions and they might have patented them, in this case it is advised to do a patent search.
This article shows that the 40 inventive principles of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) are generic; therefore, they can be applied to the domain of the electrical power grid. One point of attention is the fact that the principles must not always be taken too literally. Use them figuratively or as a metaphor instead. This will increase the usability of the principles and will sometimes double the number of applications.1
The 40 Inventive Principles
Segmentation: Dividing the system into smaller parts.
To improve the reliability of a power grid an individual can use segmentation in several ways:
- Divide the grid into smaller grids. These connected mini grids can adapt to the routing of power. Every mini grid has its own collection of electricity generators. This is applied often.
- Divide the grid into parallel grids. They can be applied to the lowest level. For example, there are three main Electra groups in a house used for a power supply and if there is a malfunction in the local (village) power hub all three groups fail leaving the house without power. If there were three parallel power grids the house would not be without power.
- A special version is an "emergency power grid" that supplies 100 watts per household if and only if the normal grid fails. This can be created easily with a heavy car battery.
- Dividing the power lines into multiple lines. This is already seen in high voltage lines.
- Divide the type of power generators from one type to several different types; therefore, one is less dependent on a single type of fuel.
Separate (extract) an interfering part or property from a technical system or single out the necessary part (or property).
- Take out the hot lines. Many devices in homes require 12 volts or less, therefore, why not provide a separate 12 volt domain component (DC) grid just like what is found in cars. No need for all those convertors. Use the same socket type or the general universal serial bus (USB) connector. Imagine that both the 12 volt and 220 volt are merged in one super-socket.
- Take out the hot lines. Why does a wall socket provide 110 / 230 volt when nothing is connected? By making the socket intelligent enough to see when it is plugged in it would make electricity cheaper. In a more intelligent version a light bulb would ask the wall socket for 100 watts and the wall socket could allow it or not. The wall socket would first ask the central power hub in the house, the house hub knows how much power is already used in the house, this could save some fuses.
Change a system from uniform to non-uniform. Make each part of a technical system fulfill a different, yet useful function.
- Use power lines to distribute information. Using devices to transport TCP / IP packets over power lines can be bought. The government could use the power grid for emergency broadcasts. All television receivers and radios would have a chip to detect the signal and would automatically tune into the emergency channel. How to make this hacker save is another question.
- Use power lines as an antenna. In the search for extraterrestrials individuals listen to radio signals from space. Currently a large dish at the Arecibo Observatory, part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC) is used. The largest antenna in the world, however, is the power grid. An individual only needs to extract the signals. A possible idea for The Planetary Society.
- Switch to a nightlight. Build a light-emitting diode (LED) in a switch. It uses minimum energy to provide a bit of light. The result is no more problems finding the light switch anymore.
Change the shape from symmetrical to asymmetrical or vice versa.
- Use different fuses. Use a much faster fuse in a children's bedroom.
- Use different forms of fuses for different currents. A square fuse for 10 amps, a round fuse for 15 amps.
- Or use different sizes for different currents. Smaller means smaller current, bigger ones do not fit in smaller fuse-sockets.
- Use a different voltage per room. Using a 12 volt in only the children's bedroom would be safer.
- Most light switches have the same form when switched on or off. If the "on" form is different and standardized, an individual can feel that by means of the form switch. In that case a broken bulb shows whether the lines are hot or not. This is similar to a wall socket.
Merge functionality or do multiple operations in parallel.
- A super system is an example of merging. Put the power plant near a big user of energy consumption to minimize transport losses. And use waste heat of the big user in the power plant to heat. This will create a symbiotic relationship.
- Put the power plant next to a large computing and data center (done already).
- Put the power plant next to an industrial area. For example, an aluminum factory uses a lot of electricity and the cooling heat can be sent to the power plant.
- Put the data center next to a swimming pool (done in Switzerland).
- Put the power plant next to a glass house. This will produce carbon dioxide in the power plant, which can be transferred directly to the growing plants.
- Merge any electric device with smart sensors. For example, televisions that can detect people in front of them will automatically turn off.
Parallel systems can be found on many levels.
- A light bulb typically has only one wire inside. The use of two or more wires causes a bulb to gradually breakdown instead of abruptly. The second wire could produce less light with enough to prevent darkness.
- Use parallel LED lights in a car. If one fails there is still a lot of light provided (this has been done).
- Place parallel Electra groups with separate fuses in a house (this has been done).
Make a part or object perform multiple functions; eliminate the need for other parts.
The high towers of the power grid for high voltage electricity lines can be made larger; therefore, every tower can carry another functional module.
- A wind turbine generates electricity that can be coupled into the grid directly.
- A Webcam for service and maintenance.
- A radio / global positioning system (GPS) beacon for airline and car navigation.
- A radar for air traffic control.
- An Internet wireless local area network (LAN) router offers communications in rural areas.
- A mobile phone hub "Honey, I will be home later."
- An umbrella to keep servicemen dry.
- A stable for cows or horses towers in meadows in the countryside.
- A road sign (arrow) to the nearest village.
- An anemometer, weather station.
- Pillars of a bridge.
Not every tower should include all of this; however, it offers extra services. The power lines can be used for high frequency communication signals.
- Use of the frequency (50 Hertz or 60 Hertz) for the electric net keeps clocks running in sync. A high frequency signal can be sent over the line once a day to synchronize the exact date / time. For example, once per hour the electricity net strikes / chimes the hours.
- High frequency signals are sent over the network to manage the net. For example, to switch relays. Also to monitor the grid or for remote meter reading.
Place similar objects into another (recursion).
Voltage within voltage:
- A 230 volt inside an 150.000 volt. Normally nearby power lines (150.000 volt) are in phase (or 120 / 240 degrees shifted). If two nearby power lines with the same phase are shifted a little bit one could create 110 / 230 volt for repair crews. It is not a nice sinus wave, however, it might still be useful. If this is too far out of the box or if it is too dangerous to consider (that small fluctuations in phase could easily double the voltage) it should be possible. It might be easier to use a 220 volt signal in superposition over the 150.000 volt on one line and none on the parallel line. The difference would be a nice 220 volt signal.
Tower within a tower:
- If the tower is made like a sliding ladder the repair crew does not need to work at high altitudes eliminating risk. Instead they use specialized vehicles. They can even work on the ground level as the towers and cables can be lowered.
Cable within a cable:
- A cable within a cable can be used to heat up the power line when it freezes where ice hangs on the lines.
- Offers double insulation.
Lamp within a lamp:
- A bulb in a bulb could cause a normal lamp to still work even if the outside shell breaks as the wire is still protected. This would create "amazing" bulbs. This same trick could be used in task light tubes (flashlight) with a smaller tube inside where not as much ionizing gas is needed or a task light tube with LEDs in it.
To counter the weight of a system, merge it with other objects that provide lift.
What is the weight of a power grid?
- Towers anti-tower?
- Lines anti-line?
- Generator anti-generator?
One typical problem is winter storm towers can be blown over. And if a tower is blown over, often a whole row of towers go flat because the lines pull on the next tower. This is because they have a fixed connection. If the fixed connection is replaced with one that is based on a counterweight (it hangs in the tower) then this tower cannot pull the next one by means of the lines. This could reduce the amount of towers that fall like dominos.
Pre-load a counter tension to an object to compensate excessive and undesirable stress.
- The concept of fuses is a well known anti-action. Change a conductor in an insulator.
- Pulling towers by the power lines is an unwanted action. If the power lines are partly rolled up like a spring they could stretch just enough to prevent the next tower falling.
- The reset-able fuse is prepared for failure.
Perform a required change of an object (either fully or partially). Carry out all or part of the required action in advance.
Power lines do break:
- For example, the power lines will break on a predefined place, therefore, the damage is minimal or easiest to repair. It should break first near the tower providing the current. That way the line that falls down is not hot anymore. If this is workable it would save lives.
Towers do fall in storms:
- Create defined weak spots in the tower construction. Make sure a large part of the broken tower can be reused. Repairs would take less time. To do this, use identical parts, beams of the same length or use the beams that have multiple holes like the Meccano System.
- Put an audio alarm into a power fuse, therefore, it warns if it reaches its maximum current.
Prepare emergency means beforehand to compensate for the relatively low reliability of an object.
- Provide diesel generators or large battery packs in vulnerable areas. This is already done in hospitals. Also farmers in the countryside often do have alternative energy supply systems.
- Z-folding the power lines in a tower will provide extra length to stretch when needed.
- Provide an emergency light in the fuse cabinet that is enabled automatically when a fuse is broken. Should switch on when opening the door.
- Store a box of light bulbs in a garage.
In a potential field limit position changes.
- Make wind forces equal. Imagine a power tower that can rotate or has parts to minimize wind catch. This is similar to wind turbines that adjust position if there is too much wind.
- Instead of a single light bulb place several small bulbs to get an even amount of lighting on the table or the working area of a kitchen.
Invert actions to solve the problem.
- When plugging into a socket it loads a spring. When the plug is pulled the spring unloads and pushes the plug out of the socket. This prevents dangling plugs.
- An automatic fuse that switches on after a predefined time to see if the short circuit is over (could be a bit dangerous).
- Instead of isolating the lines from the towers, isolate the tower from the ground (dangerous but possible). For example, isolate the left side from the right side.
- Use power lines rotating slowly in the wind to prevent ice.
- Rechargeable batteries or a flashlight with a solar panel.
- An intelligent power plant that can remotely switch off air conditioners if they take too much power.
- Use an intelligent power fuse to switch off appliances (similar).
Replace linear parts with curved parts, flat surfaces with spherical surfaces and cube shapes with ball shapes or the other way around.
- Use round pipes to build a power tower, therefore, the wind has less grip on the tower.
- Make the diameter of the power lines a water drop shape; therefore, water flows off faster.
- Drill mini dimples in the power lines; therefore, wind does not have as much grip on them (similar to dimples on golf balls that reduce drag).
- Fold a task light tube, therefore, all connectors are on one side (new problems will arise).
- Make a square or triangular task light tube or light bulb. Due to its shape they have unique properties like focusing a triangle with two mirrored sides.
- Make batteries conical, therefore, they fit only one way in a device. Any unique form will do.
Allow or design the characteristics of an object, external environment or process to change to optimal or to find an optimal operating condition.
- A plug with a socket on the back. If this plug is put into a socket there is still a socket available.
- Power lines that can extend to cope with pulling forces.
- Elastic isolators between a tower and a line that can extend to give the wire some extra space.
- A plug for a socket with a flexible goose neck. It can be used in places that are difficult to reach.
- A tower that stands on a "mobile or flexible" foot, therefore, earthquakes do not shake the tower. This is identical to quake proof buildings (it is also a cushion in advance).
Partial or Excessive Action
When 100 percent is difficult to reach, slightly less or more may be sufficient.
- Auto adjusting a fuse. If the fuse reaches its maximum power it decreases the voltage.
- If a device is plugged into the socket it gradually builds up the voltage instead of giving all the power at once. The socket can measure the behavior of the power.
- Place lamps in parallel until enough light is available.
- A switch that when turned off will stay on for a few seconds. This will delay the shut-off process, therefore, there is a little bit of light left to reach a door. It can also slowly dim the light to zero instead of on / off.
- Light dimmers make lights adjustable.
- A fridge that accepts a slightly higher inner temperature during daytime, but cools extra during the night. For example, the temperature might rise when the door has been opened to fetch milk. There is no need to start cooling immediately as the door will be opened within a short time to put the milk back. It might be more efficient to start cooling after the peak times of breakfast, lunch or dinner.
- A small electric boiler in the kitchen can use the same socket as the dishwasher, but not simultaneously. As the boiler stores hot water it does not need to heat up immediately, especially if a little bit of water has been taken. Electric devices should have different priorities.
Transition Into a New Dimension
Move an object into another dimension or add an extra dimension.
- How to cross power lines over a river: Lay them under the river (tunnel) instead. Or lay them in the river and pull them up afterward, no need to keep them dry during construction.
- Construct power towers in such a way that they prefer to fall sideways. This will minimize the additional build up of tension on the power lines. Decreasing the chance of multiple towers falling.
- Make an electric wall where sockets can be placed anywhere like a fridge magnet.
- Make a socket that can retract in the wall to hide. A pop-up socket. Same could be done for switches, lighting, etc.
- Build a light switch based on a sensor. An individual only has to wave at the switch for the light to turn on / off. It appears as if the switch has moved to another dimension.
- Alternating current is vibrating.
- Use the wind to vibrate lines to wipe off ice. Place "specialized wings" on certain places that can induce oscillation.
- Use vibrating fuses, therefore, an individual can feel in the dark which one is broken or which one is still functioning. Also a usable solution for the blind. Currently an individual can feel the heat, which is a molecular vibration, but must act fast otherwise the broken fuse is cooled down.
- Similar gentle vibrating switches give feedback about their state.
Use periodic or pulsating actions instead of continuous action.
- Drop the power grid once a month as an exercise for consumers. For example, do it on the first day of the month or at random. People will react by keeping enough batteries on hand.
- Drop the power grid at night when people are sleeping.
- If too much power is drawn from the grid, provide electricity only periodically. A well known strategy in many cities.
- Street lighting only needs to work when people pass by. This would be an energy saver.
- Perform periodic, preventive maintenance for the power grid.
Continuity of Useful Actions
Try to perform 100 percent all the time, eliminate idle time.
- Use (giant) flywheels or battery packs to keep electricity flowing. The uninterruptible power supply is a well known example to keep power on line during small black outs.
- A wind turbine with a Variomatic gearbox (like in cars) to optimize the generation of electricity.
- Build power plants in pairs; therefore, they can backup each other up. Switch them every other week to keep people busy.
- Use phosphor in lamps; therefore, they keep on shining even after switching them off.
Conduct certain process steps at high speeds or skip steps.
Skip the power-cable:
- Transport electricity by means of laser light or microwaves where cable use is difficult. May not be feasible and could even be dangerous.
- Transport the status of the towers, cables, transformers and connectivity by means of a wireless network. Electromagnetic waves move faster than electricity in a cable. It might be fast enough to act on it in case of an emergency.
- When the grid has low usage send a signal to all homes and factories that they can load their backup batteries at high speeds.
- Increase the temperature of the water in a washing machine (depends on the maximum free amps of the house).
Eliminate a harmful action by adding another harmful action.
Generate electricity results in the waste heat of the system. Reuse this waste heat in many ways.
- Use it for the heating of houses and offices in the neighborhood of the power plant.
- Use the heat to preheat water for generating hot water for houses. Ideally it makes a closed loop with the water in a steam turbine.
- Use the heat to defrost roads during wintertime.
- Store the heat underground, therefore, it is available for later use (in the winter time).
- Use the heat for some kind of industrial process.
Generating electricity often results in excess carbon dioxide.
- Reusing carbon dioxide can be done by piping it into greenhouses to grow plants faster. This is already done in the Netherlands.
- Capturing the carbon dioxide as a resource for chemical process. Fill fire extinguishers.
- Capture carbon dioxide and store it in pressure capsules to be used for flat tires. Note that the carbon dioxide is reused but not consumed.
Generating electricity often results in electric noise due to static.
- Use the noise as a "camouflage shield" in the offices of the Secret Service.
- Use the noise to generate random data to be used for encryption.
High towers (seen as "polluting the horizon") can be reused as a fire tower. Add a rotating Webcam or a heat sensitive device to monitor the area.
Introduce feedback into the system.
Feedback can take several forms in an electric system:
- Send feedback about the status of every tower, the cables, etc. to a central place for the service organization.
- Provide feedback about the expected usage from every home to the power plant. At the distribution points where a current splits a chip add up the total of the street, the suburb, the village and the city.
- Provide feedback from the power plant to the individual homes about the status of the supply. If the power plant reaches 90 percent or 100 percent output, warning lights could blink; therefore, people can turn off devices. Or even better certain devices in the home are automatically turned off as if a remote control were used.
- Provide (automatic) feedback in a wall socket about the strength of the fuse behind it.
Use an intermediate carrier or process.
- Convert electrical signals to optical ones (if possible). For example, in some critical rooms no electricity is allowed or must be minimized. Electrical power can be transformed in light too before it is transported and converted back. Or in mechanical rotation use a rheological "clutch" to switch it on / off.
- Storage of electricity can be seen as the usage of a mediator (in time). When windmills produce too much electricity there are several ways this can be stored: electrical, mechanical or chemical. When there is more demand again the storage releases the energy.
Make an object become self-serving.
- All electrical devices could be made intelligent with a microprocessor and a few sensors. By measuring the primary functions of the system (a light bulb or a washing machine) the microprocessor can turn off electricity or send a message to some computer.
- On a bigger scale an individual could make the power grid intelligent, therefore, it could be reconfigured. For example, reconfiguring the main lines to keep everyone connected if there is a failure in a power line.
Use multiple and simpler inexpensive objects instead of expensive ones.
- Copper for power lines is becoming more and more expensive. For some places cheaper iron wires would be sufficient. They might produce more heat; however, that is not always a problem. For example, it melts ice on power lines faster.
- Instead of one big fuse for one house use smaller fuses in every wall socket. Chances are strong that a short-circuit will stay local. The big fuses are still needed and will last longer.
- Use a small power plant per street. Use several small grids instead of one big one. An individual can imagine that a big factory has multiple, smaller-sized power plants.
- Use several small mirrors to heat up a solar furnace instead of one big mirror.2
Dispose Inexpensive Short Living Objects
Replace an expensive object with multiple inexpensive objects, compromising certain qualities.
- Use several (cheaper) smaller-sized mirrors to heat up a solar furnace instead of one big mirror.
- Use several smaller flat mirrors instead of an optimal parabolic mirror for solar energy.
- Use several inexpensive LEDs to make a traffic light instead of using a big bulb. Although several may break, the collective will last longer, keeping the traffic light functional.
Replacement of a Mechanical System
Replace a mechanical means with a sensory.
What is mechanical in the electric domain?
- Replace a mechanical switch with a solid state switch that reacts on magnetic fields. This is used in alarm systems.
- Replace a mechanical fuse with a device measuring and controlling the current.
- Replace a doorbell with a Webcam with movement detection.
The following are more thoughts on the word "sensory."
- Add flashing red LEDs to sockets carrying voltage. The pulse can be short; therefore, it consumes less power. If there is a plug in the socket the LED should still be visible. Added value is that when the socket is "dead" an individual can see it directly without testing with additional equipment.
- Add flashing red LEDs into live wire. For example, in an extension cable.
- Add a LED in a light bulb fitting, therefore, it shows if it is hot or not (hot = carrying current).
- Add a heat coloring crystal to a light bulb; therefore, an individual knows the glass is hot.
- Add a LED to anything hot, lawnmowers, drills and other power tools, coffee machines, computers and chargers.
Pneumatic or Hydraulic Construction
Use gas and liquid parts instead of solid parts.
- Store excess energy from a windmill as pressure instead of in an Accu Lead or in some hydraulic system. Pump water to a higher level.
- Use gas to generate light (neon light) instead of the traditional light bulb (solid wire-based). This is an excellent example of technical evolution from solids to gases (skips liquids).
Flexible Films or Thin Membranes
Isolate object from the environment.
- Add a hydrophobic film on power lines to prevent ice from forming (maybe only at the lowest or flat part of the hyperbola).
- Use isolators to shield high voltages from the steel towers; they are not thin but they isolate.
- Imagine a light bulb with some thin membrane instead of glass. The light bulb can take any shape like a balloon. Use the pressure of the photons or the heat of the gas.
- A thin glove of a highly isolating material could provide the electrician shielding without the loss of the "feel of direct touch."
- Thin membranes are part of (super) capacitors.
Make an object porous or add porous elements.
- Make the beams of a power tower porous; therefore, it changes the amount of wind it catches. Also use non-repeating patterns ensuring there are no resonance frequencies.
- Make a wire porous, therefore, the rain will penetrate the wire and become part of the conductor. It will heat up instead of freezing to ice (can this be done?).
- Make a lightning-wire of hollow copper as the electricity will be transported to the outside of the wire due to the high voltage. The hollow copper inside can be used as a wave guide.
Change the transparency or color of an object or its external environment.
- Make the insulator of wires transparent (porous for light), therefore, they take the color of their surroundings (aesthetics).
- Change the color of a loaded rechargeable battery. Green LED pulsing. Orange almost empty. Red equals dead.
- Change the color of a fuse when it is broken.
- Change the color of the wall socket when it is hot.
- Change the color of a plug if a current flows through it (there is a big LED market).
Make objects interact with a given object of the same material.
- Build a power tower from standard building beams. Easier to rebuild, not as many spare parts.
Rejecting and Regenerating Parts
Discard portions of an object that have fulfilled their functions or modify these directly during operation; restore consumable parts of an object directly in operation.
- The fuse can be discarded when the job is done.
- For a reset-able fuse, function is restored after the source of a failure is found.
- Replace insulation in power towers with new or larger insulators. This allows higher voltage through the lines.
Change the degree of flexibility.
- Power lines that are stiffer in the middle.
- Make a power tower with rubber feet, therefore, it can bend in the wind. Or rubber arms.
- Use a plug with a goose neck for difficult to reach sockets.
- Use child safe locks for sockets, change from usable to non-usable and back.
Use phenomena that occur during phase transitions.
- Use microwaves or lasers to transport electricity over large distances or difficult areas (river). Imagine a laser energy transporter that can find peer nodes. Imagine a space power grid for all those satellites in geosynchronous orbit or on The Moon.
- Use a task light tube and / or a neon light based on phase transition (ionization) of the gas.
Use thermal expansion or contraction of materials.
- As heat makes power lines longer they will hang lower. This is compensated by the power towers by means of bi-metal carriers that will bend to pull up the lines when they heat up.
- Use thermal expansion to create an automatic switch, more amps and more heat switch off. When it cools down it switches on again (bi-metal fuse).
Replace common air with oxygen enriched air.
This is not ideal with electricity. Oxygen enriched air causes fires easier, especially when there are electric sparks.
- This is left open as an exercise for the reader.
Replace a normal environment with an inert one.
- Isolators are a typical example of an inert environment.
- A Faraday cage.
- Use light to transport energy.
Change from uniform to composite (multiple) materials.
- Superconducting power lines.
- Light bulb (or anything) with a bi-metal to prevent overheating. Creates a blinking light.
This article shows that much of the The Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) and its 40 principles can be used in the electric domain. All applications mentioned in this article are not top inventions, however, there are several worth elaborating on. During this exercise it became clear that some principles (32 through 40) are more difficult to map on the electric domain than others. The author hopes other people are challenged to fill in these gaps.
- Electric Power Transmission, Wikipedia, January 2010.
- Solar Furnace, Wikipedia, December 2009.
About the Authors:
Randall Marin is founding partner and technical director of Innovacion Sistematica S.A., based in Costa Rica, Central America - a small company in the business of worldwide industry problem solving, consulting and training. He holds a bachelor degree in Electronics Engineering and is a MATRIZ-certified Level 3 specialist. He has worked for 15 years in the high-tech RF and microprocessor industries and has 20-plus years of industry experience. Marin has developed a number of non-disclosure agreement protected inventions, is a regular conference speaker and has written several articles about on-the-field problem solving, systematic innovation, applied mathematics, optics and laser. He can be reached via http://www.innovacionsistematica.com. Contact Randall Marin at randallmarin (at) ismarin.net.
Rob van den Tillaart holds a bachelor degree in Computer Science and worked almost 20 years at Oce Technologies as a concept developer. He holds 20 patents and in 2006 wrote the article titled: "TRIZ and Software - 40 Principle Analogies, a Sequel" for The TRIZ Journal. He is currently in the market for new opportunities. Contact Rob van den Tillaart at robtillaart (at) gmail.com.
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