# Increasing Speed of Yarn Spinning

TE 589A
Project
Vikram J Khona

Under the Direction of:

Dr. Michael S. Slocum
N.C.S.U.

Dr. Timothy G. Clapp
Professor
N.C.S.U.

## Problem

The system is the ring-spinning machine. The system consists of the spinning elements and the accessories for assisting the spinning elements. The fibers or filaments are given twist to form the yarn. The yarn passes through the traveller and gets wound on the package. The traveller goes around the ring inserting twist in the yarn, and there by the yarn being formed.

The problem lies in the fact that the speed of the spindle is restricted to a about 25,000 rpm. The speed of the spindle is restricted by the ring and traveller. The friction between the ring and traveller restricts the speed of the traveller on the ring-spinning machine. If the speed is increased more than 25,000 rpm the heat generated due to friction burns the traveller and the system collapses. The system has to be improved to get higher spindle speeds there by having higher production.

The contradiction present in this system is a technical contradiction. The contradiction here is that if the speed of the spindle, which in turn the speed of the traveler is increased, the heat generated due to friction increases which in turn wears the traveller.

The contradiction can be transformed into a physical contradiction, which is that if there should be friction present so that the yarn is wound on the package but it should not be present as it would heat up the traveller and wears it out.

Ideality

The ideal solution for this system would be that the yarn is formed at a high spindle speed say 100,000 rpm, which means high production and the yarn having excellent properties.

The ideal final result can be achieved by removing the harmful function which it the friction created between the ring and the traveller. This can be achieved by making the ring and traveller with a friction less material or by just eliminating the traveller.

It can also be reached by replacing a particular element of the spinning system. The traveller and the ring can be replaced by some other mechanism where by the twist is inserted to the material and the yarn being formed.

Ø      Productivity (39)
Ø      Durability of Moving Object (15)
Ø      Speed (9)
Ø      Waste of Substance (23)

Using the contradiction matrix the possible solution sets were determined and the best possible suited principles were the principle 35.Transformation of physical and chemical state of the object and 28.Replacement of the mechanical system.

The principle 35 says to change the state of the object, which can be changing the hardness, density and/or surface finish of the ring and/or traveller.

The principle 28 says to change the mechanical system, which can be to change the mechanical system to an electromagnetic system so that the friction between the ring and the traveller is reduced.

Levels of Innovation

To find out which level of innovation this system is in at present, various factors of the levels of innovation was considered. After considering the factors the system is in between level 3 and level 4.

• There are a lot of trial and error tests conducted

• There exists a strong sharp technical contradiction

• The scope of knowledge applied so far is with the same field and from different fields

• There was strong characteristic change in the system

• There is a considerable impact on the knowledge of science

##### Innovative System Questionaire

·        Information

• System name
The system name is the ring-spinning machine. The machine consists of the spinning elements, which are the ring and the traveller and the auxiliary elements.

• Primary function
The primary function of the system is to form yarn by introducing twist to the material, which is either fibers or filaments.

• Current or desired system structure
The system has the ring and traveller arrangement. The ring is mounted on a ring rail, which is driven by a differential. There is a lappet through which the material is guided to the traveller. The material flows from a package through guides and passes through rollers.

• Functioning of the system
The material is unwound from the package, which is placed on the back of the package with tension. The material passes through guides and them to the back roller and then to the front roller. The material is drafted between the two rollers. The drafted material is then passes though the lappet and then to the traveller which is mounted on the ring. The twisted yarn is then wound on another package mounted on the spindle. The spindle is driven positively.

The spindle is rotating at around 25000 rpm. The yarn is passed through the rollers and then guided down with the lappet and then passed though the traveller and gets wound on the package. The traveller revolves around the ring introducing twist. The traveller is negatively driven by the spindle.

• System environment
The whole system interacts with the air, which surrounds the machine.
The system interacts with the operator
The system interacts with the other machines of same kind and other kinds
The system has a power source to run the motor

·        Available Resources

• Substance resource
The substance resources that are present in the system are the ring and the traveller, the spindle, air, moisture, material, waste, etc.

• Field resource
The field resources present in the system is the mechanical field which creates the frictional and a mechanical field which produces the yarn.

• Functional resource
The functional resource is the function of the mechanism by which the ring and the traveler produces the yarn by twisting the material.

• Time resource
The time resource is the time required to produce the yarn.

·        Information of Problem Situation

• Desired improvement to system and/or function to eliminate
The improvement to be achieved is to increase the speed of the spindle, which in turn increase the speed of the traveller making the system more productive. Another improvement to be achieved is to make better quality yarn.

• Mechanism that causes drawback
The drawback of the system is its speed capability. The speed is limited and the need has reached to increase the speed of the system to make it more productive. The friction between the ring and the traveller is reach to an extent, which causes the traveler to burn out. The drawback is in the ring and traveller mechanism of the system.

• History of the problem
There have been a lot of studies conducted on the effect of increasing the traveller speed on the yarn quality and on the life of the traveller. The system has developed form stages where the speeds were slower and it has reached to a stage where the spindle speed is 25000 rpm.

• Secondary and tertiary problems
The secondary problem to be solved is to reduce the tension of the yard in the spinning range so that there is no end break. The tension should not exceed the tensile strength of the yarn. If so the yarn will break and the system will fail.

·        Changing the System

• Allowable changes to the system
The allowable change in the system is to maintain the twisting mechanism of using a ring and traveller or similar system where the twist is inserted in the same way as the ring and traveller system.

• Limitations to the changes to the system
The change in the system should not be expensive. The cost of the changes should not increase the cost of making the same production with the increased capacity of old systems.

The changes should be in technically feasible for the present time. It should be achievable in the present

·        Criteria for Selecting Solution Concepts

• Desired technological characteristics
The desired technological characteristic that the system should have is a mechanism by which the twist is inserted in the same fashion how it is inserted by the ring and traveller mechanism.

• Desired economical characteristics
The desired economical characteristic the system should have is that it should be practically feasible to be commercially viable. The cost of the changed system should be profitable to implement.

• Desired timetable

• Expected degree of novelty
The system should be different and new in a way that it has better productivity and quality of yarn produced than the old system.

• Other
The system should not consume a lot of floor space.

·        History of Attempted Solutions

• Previous attempts
There had been previous attempts made to improve the speed of the ring and traveller system. These attempts have improved to an extent. The main difficulty faced by these attempts is with the traveller burning out.

• Other system that exhibit similar problems
Other systems that exhibit similar problem was not successfully identified.

#### Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving - ARIZ

1         Mini Problem Formulation

1.1   Key problem

 (+) Increasing production Increasing the speed of the spindle (-) Traveller heating up and wearing out

The problem is the heat generated because of friction between the ring and the traveller is high when the speed of the spindle is increased causing the traveller to burn-out.

1.2   Useful function

The useful function is to increase the spindle speed, which increases the traveller speed. The product of the useful function is increased production.

1.3   Harmful function

The harmful function is the friction between the ring and the traveller creating heat, which ultimately burns out the traveller.

1.4   Common elements in useful and harmful functions

The common element is the friction in both useful and harmful function.

1.5   Graphic scheme of the conflict

 Increase in production Increasing spindle speed Traveler heating up and wearing out

1.6   Discover form the problem description

Additional condition: very high spindle speeds

 (+) Very high production Running the spindle at very high speed (-) Burning the traveller

1.7   Formulate the functional initial contradiction (IC-1)

If the spindle speed is very fast then (+) the production is very high but (-) the traveller burns out.

1.8   Reverse key knot

 (+) Traveller does not heat up Decreasing spindle speed (-) Decrease in production

1.9   Reverse conflict

 Low production Decrease in spindle speed Traveler not heating up

1.10          Formulate the functional initial contradiction (IC-2)

If the spindle speed is low then (+) it reduces the production but (-) does not heat up the traveller.

1.11          Formulate the mini problem

The system is to make yarn by twisting the material, with the help of the ring and the traveller where the traveller is driven negatively by the spindle.

IC-1: If the spindle speed is very fast then (+) the production is very high but (-) the traveller burns out.

IC – 2: If the spindle speed is low then (+) it reduces the production but (-) does not heat up the traveller.

2         The Pseudo-Fundamental Contradiction Formulating and Resolving

The speed of the spindle should be high for producing the yarn fast and should be low to eliminate the heating of the traveller due to friction

The separation principles are used and it can be resolved by separating the ring and the traveller in space. This way there is no friction between the ring and traveller and the spindle speed can be increased.

3         Conflict Enforcement

3.1   Enforce the conflict from IC-1

Very high speed of the spindle so that the production is willingly increased. This formulation gives the importance of speed in production.

3.2   Enforce the conflict from IC-2

To produce yarn without the rotation of spindle. This is possible if only the traveller is driven with another source and not form the spindle.

4         Formulating Directions for Solutions

4.1   Formulate the model of problem for the conflict IC-1

The speed of the spindle increases the speed of the traveller which increases the friction created between the ring and the traveller.

 Increase in production Increasing spindle speed Traveler heating up and wearing out

It is essential to introduce an resource which prevents the heating up of the traveller and maintains the speed of the traveller.

4.2   Formulate the model of problem for the conflict IC-2

The low speed of the spindle keeps the traveller cool, but does not increase the production.

 Low production Decrease in spindle speed Traveler not heating up

It is essential to introduce a resource, which provides the traveller energy to have high speed and the same time keeps the traveller from wearing out.

5         Using Substance-Field Transformations

5.1   Render the initial SU-Field model for the problem on step 4.1

The SU-field model made with IC-1 is that the work piece is the ring in which the traveller is placed. The tool is the traveller and the field created it the friction. It is a mechanical field. There is a harmful relation ship between the work piece and the tool creating friction. There is a useful and harmful relation ship between the traveller and the field friction as it is needed for winding and not needed as it causes wear of the traveller.

5.2   Try to solve the problem with SU-Field model from step 5.1

In order to remove the harmful functions the 76 standard solution set was referred and the SU-field model was solved. A field has to be added between the ring and the traveller to resolve the harmful effect. A substance is added between the field created and the traveller to direct the harmful function to an intermediate substance and thus the SU-field model is solved.

The substance that is added between the field (friction) and the traveller is a void substance. The field added between the ring and the traveller is a electromagnetic field.

6         Operational Zone Analysis and Resources Discovering

6.1   Determine the operational zones (OZ)

6.2   Determine the operational and resource time (OT and RT)

The operational time and the resource time could not be determined. But it is very short as the speed of the machine is very high. It is in the terms of milliseconds.

6.3   Operational zones picture

The operational zones picture is shown in the figure above.

6.4   Describe the operational zone picture

The conflict present here is in between the ring and the traveller. The ring and the traveller come in contact with each other in the inner surface of the ring as shown in the figure.

6.5   Mark useful, harmful, insufficient, and excessive substances, fields, properties, processes and flows.

Useful function, but insufficient;

To produce the yarn
To produce the yarn at a fast rate

Harmful functions;

Generation of friction
Wearing of the traveller

6.6   Draw the relative picture of events going on in the OZ’s

MLP modeling (was)

In the MLP modeling we can see clearly what is going on in the zone of conflict. We can use the smart little people to simulate the process. There are two groups of smart little people’s. The SLP1 is the group in the traveller, and the SLP2 are the group in the ring. When the ring and the traveller is in working the SLP2 and the SLP1 fight eachother killing the SLP1, causing the wear of the traveller. This is because SLP1 are weaker than the SLP2.

MLP model (should be)

In the should be model of the MLP modeling we can resolve the conflict by introducing another group of smart little people in between the two, preventing the conflict. The SLP3 will not let SLP1 and SLP2 come in conflict and there by the wear on the traveller can be avoided.

6.7   Estimate the resources

The resources that is present in the system are ring, traveller, material, spindle, package, air, waste fly, temperature, humidity, moisture, pressure, oxygen, balloon control rings, lappet, etc.

7         Initial Ideal Result (IIR) Formulation

7.1   Describe the IIR

 For IC-1 For IC-2 X-resource X-resource Without system complication Without system complication Without harmful consequences Without harmful consequences Prevents overheating of the traveller Provides energy to the traveller to produce yarn Maintains the force required to produce the yarn at a fast rate Maintains complete absence of the heat generated on the traveller

7.2   Step back from IIR

It can be ideal that the molecules of the traveller dissipate the heat to the environment or the ring with the help of a void substance.

7.3   Create a preliminary portrait of X-Resource

The x-resource should be able to pass the heat generated from the traveller to the environment.

The x-resource should be able to allow easy movement of the traveller around the ring.

The x-resource should be easy to use.

7.4   Take resources from step 5.7 as X-Resource

The resources that are present in the system that can act as the x-resource is air and moisture

7.5   Find a method to perform the X-Resource actions formulated

The x-resource can be a magnetic field that can repel the ring and the traveller so that there is no contact between the ring and the traveller and thereby avoiding friction.

7.6   Try to find a trade-off solution of the problem with minimum deviations from IIR requirements

The solution that can be achieved is that by using a electromagnetic field between the ring and the traveller so that the ring and the traveller repels there by preventing them to come in contact with each other.

7.7   Choose the main resource and formulate the enforced IIR

The main resource used here is a electromagnetic field. This is not an available resource. The ring and the traveller can be oppositely charged preventing them to come in contact with each other.

8.1   Formulate a brief fundamental Contradiction

The x-resource should be present between the ring and traveller at all the time to prevent them to contact each other to avoid heating, but it should not be present to provide some friction for the yarn to wind in the package.

8.2   Formulate the fundamental contradiction for process

The contradiction in the process it that the friction created between the ring and traveller during spinning causes heat and friction is also needed to wind the yarn in the package.

8.3   Formulate the fundamental contradiction for macro-state

8.4   Formulate the fundamental contradiction for micro-state

8.5   Formulate the fundamental contradiction for flow

The fundamental contradiction for flow is that the heat energy should flow to the environment but should not pass to the rest of the traveller.

9.1   Resolve the brief fundamental contradiction

The x-resource should be of such properties that it should conduct heat to the ring from the traveller but at the same time it should be viscous to provide some resistance to the movement of the traveller in the ring.

9.2   Resolve the fundamental contradiction for process

The fundamental contradiction for process can be resolved by using a substance or a field that has both the required properties.

9.3   Resolve the fundamental contradiction for macro-state

9.4   Resolve the fundamental contradiction for micro-state

9.5   Resolve the fundamental contradiction for flow

The flow of the energy is resolved by suing a substance that transmits the heat energy form the zone of conflict to the environment.

10     The Ideal Final Result (IFR) Formulating

10.1          Formulate the IFR for the brief fundamental contradiction

The additional resource should provide the necessary characteristics of the necessary x-resource during the spinning process to prevent the heating up of the traveller.

10.2          Formulate the IFR for process

The ideal final result of a process should be that there is no friction created to generate heat, but there should be friction to wind the yarn in the package.

10.3          Formulate the IFR for macro-state

10.4          Formulate the IFR for micro-state

10.5          Formulate the IFR for flow

The ideal final result for flow is that it should transmit all the heat generated by the traveller to the environment.

11     Solving the New Fundamental Problem in IFR Formulation

11.1          Solve new fundamental problem in IFR using resources discovered on step 6.4

No new fundamental problem.

11.2          Solve new fundamental problem in IFR using SU-Field Transformations

No need to solve if there are no problems.

11.3          Solve new fundamental problem in IFR using the final portrait of required problem solving phenomenon

No need to solve.

11.4          Solve secondary problems if necessary

No secondary problems.

#### Conclusions

The TRIZ tools were used to solve the problem of improving the productivity of ring spinning. Ring spinning technology is very important and un-substituable until now. It has reached a matured state. TRIZ tools were used to improve the system and the results are stated;

ü      Change the hardness, density, material and/or the surface finish of the ring and traveller.
ü      Use a field between the ring and the traveller. The field can be a magnetic field.
ü      Use a void substance between the ring and the traveller. The substance could be air or lubricant.
ü      Suspend the ring in a electromagnetic field without the traveller, which gives the same effect as a ring and traveller and there is no question about friction to hear up a traveller since there is no traveller present.

These solutions are applicable either at present or in a future date. The last solution where in a electromagnetic field is used to suspend the ring in space is a solution which can be achieved in a future date as the present technology is not applicable.

Thus by using the TRIZ tools the solution of the problem is achieved with a higher level of innovation.