Models of Spiral Development of Technique
Размещено на сайте 05.02.2009.
In the seminar it is said about the attempt to investigate technique evolutionary processes with the Hegel’s dialectic language.
TRIZ in its development was mainly based upon the law of transition of quantity into quality making it central principle – “Law of evolution along the S-curve”.
Law of unity and struggle of opposites was demonstrated in terms of Technical, Physical and Administrative contradictions which are fundamental for all ARIZes.
Law of double negation was vaguely demonstrated by the scheme 9 of screen thinking.
Attempts to use the spirality as an additional model which is based on the law of double negation allowed seeing new phenomena that happen in the technique development.
Spirality model is necessary to be served by instruments in the form of methods and algorithms. In was done while project carrying since 1986 till present time.
Results of Materials combined in the form of collections of examples can be found on a special Internet Resource.
Here you can see an introductory lecture on the course “Laws of technique development”.
Since 1986, while TRIZ tools using one of the authors never lost the feeling that recognized phenomena are closely connected with the Hegel’s dialectics and between themselves.
Approximately in 2002 this connection was demonstrated in the form of a diagram, the fragments you can see.
In your hands you have handout material where you can see the details.
On the diagram it is seen that the biggest part of one of this diagram halves is occupied by 9 laws and 40 principles which are well known to all.
On the diagram more than 9 laws are demonstrated but today’s analysis and as the result built models recommend using this very format of perception. This allows demonstrating a specific, but quite comfortable logic in modern interpretations.
There were 8 laws in the original version of Genrih Altshuller, TRIZ creator and author, and they were built on the principles of classification of physical laws, subdividing into statics, cinematics and dynamics This was convenient for that historical period. Springing young science tried to look like the well known one and existed in that period in line with the trend which we will study in our course “phenomenon of technical mimicry” that is typical as a rule for “young systems” and “the old ones”.
. Among these principles there were no Law of evolution along the S-curve which later occupied the central joining place and was described in details in the most detailed for today’s day textbook written by our colleagues Semen Litvin and Alex Lubomirsky.
The diagram as you see consists of two halves and their construction is explained by the operation of tasks transformation principle which was introduced in the practice of inventional analysis by Boris Zlotin in far 80s of the last century.
These diagrams required thinking about the fact that central principle “Law of evolution along the S-curve” (actually the law of transition of quantity into quality) needs an additional principle which is called the law of double negation in dialectics and in terms of applied tools, so-called TRIZ, it doesn’t even have an established name.
Common sense prompts that the central element of matrix 3 X 3 where we put “Law of evolution along the S-curve” must be considered as the enclosed minor of the second stage as you see on the picture.
Here 3 laws of dialectics are added with the fundamental law of preservation from considerations of ranks equality of chosen managing principles.
Laws of preservation in terms of TRIZ are for future investigations that’s why we’ll not discuss this situation now. It’s important that instinctive understandings appeared from the analysis of technique development which has been studied by the authors for many years required taking into consideration this important item.
People develop technique in the direction of disadvantages removing but at the same time the change of one disadvantage by another one happens.
A hypothesis about principle disadvantage conversation appears and this makes us outline this idea into an additional principle that has not been described yet.
To prove this thesis is difficult that’s why let it have the status of a hypothesis and go on further.
We have an additional level of requirements to the present tools for the explanation of technique development processes so additional methodological tool resulting in any case from the supplement of central managing principle must appear.
Examples on the Law of negation of negation you can see here.
Examples on the Law of transition of quantity into quality you can see here.
Examples on the Law of unity and opposites struggle can be illustrated with the help of collection of examples on Harmful Machine (dualism advantage – disadvantage can be seen here.
This part of discipline may be developed with your efforts.
On the way we’ll make some notes about such an important phenomenon as “resources of development” because in a new approach they are the objects with which all operations are made as well as on the level of managing principles and on the level of principles of a lower rank.
On this picture a model of new technical decisions forming is demonstrated if we see this process as the follows:
The reason of development is needs. The disadvantage is the verbalization of needs and in this case it can have both objective and subjective features. In line with the request made the address to the base of resources classified on the taxon units such as substance, energy (sometimes we call it “field”), time, space, motion and information which are divided into 2 classes happen. Needs as the resource of information and Economical considerations (sometimes we use the word “price”). This subdivision into two parts is explained by the dualism of Technical System & Product which we have seen on the diagram of the law structure “unity and opposites struggle”. Then new TS – product appears (the right part of the picture we are discussing). It is the result of the whole described chain but this is not the end because a new act of negation in the form of a new dissatisfaction of a certain engineer with some TS parameters appears and everything starts from the beginning.
This picture emphasizes the difference of ranks and and is made in the format of task address according to B. Zlotin.
There is one more replica in respect of the term “Resources”. In the classical heritage resources were considered as something “free of charge” surrounding the Operative Zone and the motive of address was accompanied by the word phrase “can be considered”. In nowadays models the second format of motivation is used and can be described as “needs to be studied”.
The second doesn’t exclude the first as well as the integration according “to Lebeg” doesn’t prohibit the integration according “to Stiltyes” and Cartesian coordinate system doesn’t prohibit the spherical one. Everything depends on the situation context.
We’ll finish our introductory review with an attempt to build classification of modern TRIZ instruments according to their belonging to one of the three laws of dialectics.
As we see we could fill in the table in such an unusual format. That’s why we suggest a hypothesis about the appearance of a future macrolanguage in the form of “dialectical analysis”. To this hypothesis a special seminar is devoted and we will not study the dialectical analysis in details. Let’s pass to the model building of spirality of techniques evolution.
Those who like overleaping can see the conspectus of practical lesson on DA.
Example of practical use( eng) .
Examples on the phenomenon of repetition in the history of technique evolution are shown here
Chosen classification is build in accordance with the worked out definition of the object of investigation
Spirality (def) – the phenomenon of technology transfer inside one family of systems.
Try to remember how the picture of interpretation of double negation law looked like. There is the phenomenon of evolution of repetition which we call technology transfer and this phenomenon exists in the frames of one machine class: vacuum cleaners, microchips and grinders.
I’d like to notice that the diagram is classified according to the same resource taxons. The square “disadvantage” is the matrix of basic (elementary) 36 Harmful Machines which are extensively used in our course as a model for analysis.
The structure of additional principals of technique evolution, formulated in the way described above, includes as well as all classical heritage (yellow matrix 3X3) and cover where all new phenomena and instruments for their description have been put.
Matrix 5X5 includes both all knowledges of the previous period and all knowledges acquired because of formation of spirality models. Course on our discipline consequently studies all matrices. On many of them we have only primary gathered collections of examples.
On many phenomena systems of classification were built and simple methods of their use were suggested.
Along with the classification system of spirality phenomenon of technique evolution a phenomenal picture for the description of double negation principle which manipulates the term “critical parameter” was suggested.
Agree that approaching their naturally scientific limits of this or that technical decision is a widely spread phenomenon. TV-sets with cathode – ray tube minimized the distance from the projector to the screen for long time and stubbornly but in principle they cannot be flat and liquid-crystal screens is the result of technique evolution of approaching this parameter: let’s name it simply “ TV fatness” to its critical meaning.
Consequently there was a struggle for price reducing which is
specific feature of “system aging” . There is also a parallel process of forming buyer’s preferences and expectations. While the product is absent “expectations” (needs) have a higher rank than real opportunities of TS and because of this Nipkov TV was changed into TV sets with cathode – ray tube and the last ones in their turn into liquid-crystal screens. Along with this all three types of TV sets were keeping relational characteristics. Line – by – line image reading of the Nipkov disk transferred into cathode – ray tube, and an opportunity to use one source of light for process realization was changed from Nipkov disk construction into TV sets liquid-crystal screens construction.
This example illustrates connection of S-Curve and Spirality. This illustration can be made in a more simple way in the format “physicist joke”.
Of course this proof is more humorous than strict but for phenomenological models it’s quite O.K.
Let’s study the examples of use of new analysis tools that are based on the models of Spiral development.
Popular texts prepared on the introductory lecture.
Two opposite processes of association of artificial systems (machines) and biological systems (read rus) English
«How predictors want to work less in the country house» (read rus) English
What will we study in this course?
40 principles and 9 basic laws of technique evolution.
Use training cases for recognizing these objects.
- Merging with the opposite system (pencil + rubber)
- Merging type “multiplication” N
- Merging with the same system (blue pencil + red one)
- Merging with the alternative system (pen + pencil)
- Merging with the close in cycle of use (example: pencil + sharpener)
- Merging with different systems (example: pen + fire)
- Merging type “set in Package” (drawing set)
- Merging with metrical systems (tea bag, transparent case)
- Merging with the energysource (specially created) printer
- Merging with the environmental source (already existing) inscription by burning :the sun + lens (example: vibrational energysource “nonbattery electronics”)
- Merging with entertaining functions (watches with voice notification, mimicry)
- Merging with the system of management (robots)
- Merging “young” with “old” to facilitate an input in the market
(example: the jet plane + the usual plane, fire fighting crew and the service on dust removing from Gobelin)
- Merging equal on “age”: “old” + “old” to create a new market
(example: a mop with the hinge + the sponge= a new type of cleaning tools)
15.Merging “old” with “young” not to leave the market (example: a pen and a laser pointer
- Merging of motions
- Merging of substances (“composite materials”)
- Merging of fields
- Merging of principles
- Merging of structure (“matryoshka”)
- Merging of resources
В тексте сохранены авторская орфография и пунктуация.